No one can be a great thinker who does not realize that as a thinker it is her first duty to follow her intellect to whatever conclusions it may lead. Truth gains more even by the errors of one who with due study and preparation, thinks for himself, than by the true opinions of those who only hold them because they do not suffer themselves to think. No that it is solely, of chiefly, to form great thinkers that freedom of thinking is required. One the contrary, it is as much or even more indispensable to enable average human beings to attain the mental stature which they are capable of. There have been and many again be great individual thinkers in a general atmosphere of mental slavery. But there never has been, nor ever will be, in that atmosphere an intellectually active people. Where any of heterodox speculation was for a time suspended, where there is a tacit convention that principles are not to be disputed: where the discussion of the greatest questions which can occupy humanity is considered to be closed, we cannot hope to find that generally high scale of mental activity which has made some periods of history so remarkable. Never when controversy avoided the subjects which are large and important enough to kindle enthusiasm was the mind of a people stirred up from its foundation and the impulse given which raised even persons of the most ordinary intellect to something of the dignity of thinking beings.
She who knows only her own side of the case knows little of that. Her reasons may be food, and no one may have been able to refute them. But if she s equally unable to refute the reasons of the opposite side; if she does not so much as know what they are, she has no ground for preferring either opinion. The rational position for her would be suspension of judgment, and unless she contents herself with that, she is either led by authority, or adopts, like the generality of the world the side to which she feels the most inclination. Nor is it enough that she should heat the arguments of adversaries from her own teachers, presented as they state them, and accompanied by what they offer as refutations, That is not the way to do justice to the arguments, or bring them into real contact with her own mind. She must be able to hear them form persons who actually believe them; who defend them in earnest, and do their very utmost for them. She must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form; she must feel the whole force of the difficulty which the true view of the subject has to encounter and dispose of; else she will never really possess herself of the portion of truth which meets and removes that difficulty. Ninety-nine in a hundred of what are called educated persons are in this condition; even of those who can argue fluently for their opinions. Their conclusion may be true, but it might be false for anything they know; they have never thrown themselves into the mental position of those who think differently form them and considered what such persons may have to say; and consequently they do not, in any proper sense of the word, know the doctrines which they themselves profess.
1. The best title for this passage is
[A] The Age of Reason [B] The need for Independent Thinking
[C] The Value of Reason [D] Stirring People's Minds
2. According to the author, it is always advisable to
[A] have opinions which cannot be refuted.
[B] adopt the point of view to which one feels the most inclination.
[C] be acquainted with the arguments favoring the point of view with which one disagrees,
[D] suspend heterodox speculation in favor of doctrinaire approaches.
3. According to the author, in a great period such as the Renaissance we may expect to find
[A] acceptance of truth [B] controversy over principles
[C] inordinate enthusiasm [D] a dread of heterodox speculation
4. According to the author, the person who holds orthodox beliefs without examination may be described in all of the following ways EXCEPT as
[A] enslaved by tradition [B] less than fully rational
[C] determinded on controversy [D] having a closed mind
5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements
[A] A truly great thinker makes no mistakes.
[B] Periods of intellectual achievement are periods of unorthodox reflection,
[C] The refutation of accepted ideas can best be provided by one's own teachers.
[D] excessive controversy prevents clear thinking.
1. B. 独立思考的必要性。见难句译注1。这里说明进行独立思考的人即使犯错误，真理也能从中获得东西，而那些懒于思考人，即使持有正确的观点，真理也难以获得东西。第一段还点明 思想禁锢时期，即不能进行独立思考时期，难以讨论重大议题，产生不了活跃的人民，绝不会出现像辉煌的文艺复兴那种时期(见第二题注)。第二段也是围绕独立思考而写，只是从具体点着眼：人只知自己，不知对方无法获得真理，只有独立思考两方，才能不为所左右，不会跟着自己感觉走，最终知道自己的真正主张。A. 理性时代。C.驳斥的价值。D. 激发人民的思想。
2. C. 熟悉有利于自己不同意/反对观点的论点。这是作者在第二段讲述的重要论点。他认为一个人只知自己一方，推理极好，无人能反驳，却不知对方的推理，也不能够予以反驳的话，他就无权选择两方的任一论点，其理智位置是停止判断。否则她就会(像世界上芸芸众生那样)不是为所“引导”，就是跟着感觉(的倾向)走。其二，作者提出：光听自己的老师讲述对立面的论点，以及他们所提出的反驳论点。只是不够的，必须倾听那些人(他们真正相信对立的观点)的论点，并为此积极热情，竭尽全力辩护，才能使自己的思想和独立论点接触，公正的作出公正的判断。A. 具有不能驳斥的观点。B. 采取个人感觉最倾向的观点。 D. 停止有利于教条主义研究的异端思考。
3. B. 辩论原则问题。答案在第一段：在思想禁锢的气氛中，过去，现在可能会产生个别的思想家，但绝不会有思想活跃的人民，在那里有一种心照不宣的惯律：原则决不能讨论——认为占据人类心灵的最重大问题的讨论应封闭，我们不能期望看到一般高级的思想活动。这种思想活动曾使历某些时期光辉灿烂。而文艺复兴就是思想活动的顶峰时期，必然会讨论原则问题，所以选B 。A. 接受真理，周经过讨论才能接受真理。C. 过度的热情。 D. 害怕异端思考。
4. C. 在辩论上，坚定不移。这是一道推断题，一般讲：持有未经检验的正统信仰的人不会独立思考，更不会怀疑他所信仰的东西。A. 为传统所奴役。B. 不怎么理智。D. 头脑闭塞。这种人必然受传统思想控制，不理智更不愿接受外界新鲜事物。
5. B. 在思想方面取得成就的时期就是进行非正统反思的时期。见3题注释。A. 一个真正的思想家不犯错误。C. 一个人的老师最能提供所接受思想观点的反驳。D. 过度的辩论会制止清晰的思考。